The following is excerpted from Infinite Energy Technologies: Tesla, Cold Fusion, Antigravity, and the Future of Sustainability, published by Inner Traditions.
We inhabitants of this planet have made huge mistakes. The good news is that we could turn the situation around by cooperating–with each other and with the rest of the natural world. For perspective, we could begin by viewing the scene from a distance.
Earth is a blue jewel in our solar system–the water-rich planet. A closer view reveals abuse of that priceless water. Oil blackens ocean beaches. Aging barrels of radioactive waste leak into ground and ocean waters. Coal mining blasts mountaintop springs and water-enlivening forests into oblivion. Hydro dams create stagnant lakes on previously healthy rivers, and methane mining harms other streams. Supplies of drinking water shrink, and much of this is caused by the dominant energy technologies.
Wiser beings viewing Earth might wonder, “Will the inhabitants of this planet use their emerging crises as springboards for cooperative actions? Will they unite to shift to energy technologies that are in harmony with nature? Will they employ the harmonious technologies to restore watersheds, cleanse rivers and oceans, and ultimately create a higher civilization?”
There are various paths the human family can take toward environmental stewardship and a more caring society. Some contributors see the need for a new source of energy beyond the standard alternatives. Some find that individual inventors and independent research groups around our world have made the breakthroughs that could replace coal, oil, and uranium.
This article introduces water-related breakthroughs. They range in size from Blue Energy Canada’s hydroturbine tidal-power bridges down to the injecting of water vapor into a car engine. Some innovations swirl water into the form of an inward-spiraling vortex–nature’s choice for an energy-tapping motion–and some similarly involve imploding bubbles in water to release powerful energies. A few types of the inventions could clean up polluted water at the same time as providing electric power.
Humankind knows how to harness fire, wind, sun, and the strongest forces in nature. Will the next leap forward use the power of water? That question is posed by the BlackLight Power website (www?.blacklightpower.com). It describes a novel hydrogen-related energy that’s cheap, abundant, and generates no pollution or greenhouse gases. A video on the site says our prosperity is limited only by our ambition. We can keep our world, oceans, rivers, and the air we breathe clean by using “energy made right here at home–or anywhere in the world.” This article concludes with good news about that BlackLight process and about global cooperation among new-energy activists, but first will look at other water-related discoveries down through history.
Dawning of the Age of Aqua
The urge to solve humankind’s energy-generating problems is felt by innovators around the planet. Thousands of videos and forums on the Internet share research and homegrown experiments. Before the Internet and its open sourcing of knowledge, lone inventors tried to single-handedly save us from our dependence on dirty fuels. And long before hippies saw the dawning of an Age of Aquarius, a few individuals discovered that water is a key to independence.
James Robey of Kentucky compiled a history titled Water Car: How to Turn Water into Fuel. It begins with the Swiss-German physician Paracelsus about five hundred years ago noticing that a flammable gas formed when iron reacted with a certain acid added to water. In his era the pace of discoveries was slow. Centuries passed until an eighteenth-century British scientist had the resources and patience to isolate what he called “inflammable air” and prove it is a separate element. When the gas burned, water formed again. He figured out that water is made from two parts of hydrogen and one of oxygen. A British team was also first to perform electrolysis of water. They used a new invention, the battery, passing its electric current through water to produce hydrogen and oxygen, which appear as tiny bubbles rising out of the water.
Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland, first to patent an internal combustion engine, powered his clunky vehicle on hydrogen from water. It took the wrong path; fuel was not created on demand, but instead hydrogen was dangerously stored in a tank before being released by hand into a five-inch-diameter cylinder and sparked. His 1805 car lurched forward fifteen feet every five seconds. There was room for improvement, but the car’s exhaust was clean.
Michael Faraday was a British scientist who said, “Nothing is too wonderful to be true.” Unfortunately some of today’s experts use his fame dogmatically to justify a narrower viewpoint. In 1834 Faraday’s experiments proved a certain limit to the efficiency of electrolysis. The amount of hydrogen and oxygen output from Faraday-type electrolysis is a set proportion; nearly four kilowatt-hours of electricity is needed to produce one cubic meter of hydrogen. Twenty-first-century experts invoke “Faraday’s law” to shut the door on maverick experimenters’ claims of superefficient electrolysis.
Faraday’s formula does hold true for the usual electrolysis experiment using “brute force” direct current. You can’t run a generator on water by burning the hydrogen gas put out by a standard electrolyzer (the apparatus that uses electricity to break apart water). It takes too much electricity to produce the gas, so burning won’t ever produce enough heat to be converted to that much electrical energy. Such a system couldn’t power a generator or vehicle.
However, not everyone builds things the usual way. And not everyone breaks up water with the sledgehammer approach of a heavy flow of electrical current. Instead, approaches that require less electricity can be used to separate hydrogen atoms from water molecules. Those who are doing “non-Faraday electrolysis” range from backyard tinkerers to highly educated maverick scientists who may have an understanding of atoms that is advanced beyond mainstream science.
In 1872 acoustic researcher John Worrell Keely of Philadelphia reportedly demonstrated the use of multiple sound vibrations to break water apart. Could a combination of tones from three tuning forks produce music that causes hydrogen atoms to dance their way out of the water molecule? Keely said he had indeed found the resonant frequency of water. Many of Keely’s discoveries, prototypes, and papers disappeared after his death.
In Dallas, Texas, more than a century after Faraday, Henry Garrett’s invention turned water into fuel on demand under a car’s hood. He had previously invented the emergency dispatch radio, which he gave to Dallas without cost, and created his city’s first automatic traffic signal. Garrett and his son Charles worked on their electrolytic carburetor for eight years before Charles patented it in 1935. Newspaper articles said it substituted water for gasoline and that Garrett claimed cooler motor operation, instantaneous starting in any weather, elimination of fire hazards, and full power and speed. Was Garrett a con man, as debunkers claim? There’s no evidence for that charge, says Robey.
Robey dug into Dallas newspapers and other archives and found Garrett to have been a gifted technician and upstanding public servant who donated much time and many of his assets to help others. Robey wonders why the Garretts’ invention wasn’t used by any car manufacturer or offered as a retrofit device. “Maybe it was a few local oilmen who convinced them to just drop the thing . . .”
Meanwhile in Bolivia, Francisco Pacheco’s fascination with an electricity-generating fish led him to an invention that produced fuel from water efficiently. The U.S. vice president at the time, Henry Wallace, took a goodwill tour of South America, met Pacheco, and saw the potential for his invention to replace gasoline diverted to fight World War II. Wallace invited him to immigrate, so Pacheco moved to New Jersey. By the time Pacheco consulted a lawyer about patenting his invention, however, Americans were getting ample supplies of gasoline. Few worried about pollution. Pacheco was advised to wait. Family and job responsibilities took his attention for nearly thirty years before he began demonstrating how he could power engines and a home with his device. It produced hydrogen as needed–by an interaction of salt water, magnesium, electricity, and carbon. He also ran a boat on seawater. In 1992 his second patent described a process that needed no electricity. Despite his many efforts to get fair publicity and to reach decision makers, his discoveries were ignored.
Andrija Puharich was a medical doctor whose technical brilliance led him to also earn a Ph.D. in physics and thirty patents on his inventions. After studying the famed inventor Nikola Tesla’s findings about electrical resonance, Puharich tuned into the resonant frequencies of water molecules to loosen the bonds between hydrogen and oxygen. His friends claim he traveled thousands of miles through Mexico and the United States in a motor home powered by hydrogen split from water, created on demand in the vehicle. The legend includes a trip through a mountain pass where he melted snow water to fill his fuel tank. Puharich’s brilliance didn’t settle into a business groove, so his invention didn’t make it to the marketplace. Instead he turned his attention to understanding the nature of consciousness.
Puharich and Pacheco are dead, but other inventors continue. In the Philippines, engineer Daniel Dingel says that in the past forty years he has converted more than a hundred cars to run on water, using seawater as the electrolytic solution.
Textbooks say it is impossible to get a car battery to put out enough electrical power to do what Dingle claims to be doing. Skeptics point to slight traces of carbon found in his car’s exhaust. However the traces don’t prove he is using some hydrocarbon fuel. Instead, that carbon could have arrived in the air intake from smoggy, sooty city air. Old videos show him running a Toyota Corolla car with his small hydrogen reactor hooked up to its engine. Dingle was told that his country’s government, deep in debt, could not support his efforts because that government has been instructed to avoid competing with the World Bank’s energy interests–oil.
New Water Science ?from Russia
Highly educated but underemployed Russian scientists are often ahead with future science despite financial challenges. Philipp Kanarev, Ph.D., a physicist, a distinguished professor, and the head of the Theoretical Mechanics Department at Kuban State Agrarian University, has at times done his own experiments without the benefit of basic comforts such as heat in his laboratory. Kanarev writes about how today’s energy technologies cause ecosystems to deteriorate, but he adds that the deterioration can be halted by using water as an energy source.
Kanarev says his water plasma electrolysis method is the most efficient way to get cheap hydrogen from water. Unfortunately, his 1987 report about his method was kept away from the news media or public scientific journals for years afterward; the military-industrial complex in the Soviet Union classified the report. He focused at that time on using his device for purifying and disinfecting water. That focus changed after Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced in 1989 that they had achieved excess energy output during a type of electrolysis.
That “tabletop fusion” announcement renewed research efforts behind the former Iron Curtain as well as in the West. As a result, in 1996 some of Kanarev’s colleagues publicly announced the excess energy output from their plasma process, the next year they applied for a patent, then a full team of Russian scientists tested the device. In recent years it has been measured releasing up to ten times more hydrogen than ordinary electrolysis.
Various new-energy inventions mimic aspects of how nature works, in contrast to insensitive-to-nature old-energy systems. Kanarev observed that the way humankind has been creating megawatt or gigawatt energy systems is inefficient; it’s uneconomical to use processes that operate continuously. Instead, he suggested copying the principle used by “the main natural motor–the heart of the man and the animals.”
If a heart operates one-third of the time and rests two-thirds, its pulsations can be described as an impulse process. Taking that impulse principle into electrolysis means employing work-and-rest cycles (pulses) instead of a continuous flow of electricity. Kanarev and his colleagues found that when water molecules are shaken apart by electric pulses at frequencies that match the substance’s natural resonant frequencies, the atoms’ outermost electrons absorb energy from the surrounding space–the background energy of the universe. Perhaps this explains why Kanarev’s “plasma electrolysis” can output ten times more hydrogen than Faraday’s law allows.
Kanarev concludes that modern physics and chemistry fail to do electrolysis efficiently because textbooks are based on mistaken ideas about the orbital motion of electrons in atoms. He writes new textbooks based on emerging science that goes beyond the mainstream worldview.
Waterfall, Hurricane, ?Dam-Blast Free Energy
Meanwhile in the United States another well-credentialed and dignified physicist, Peter Graneau, also authors books about new scientific understandings and unlimited renewable energy from ordinary water. In an editorial in the May/June 2010 issue of Infinite Energy magazine, he says the most promising technology of a new clean-energy source is that of liberating hydrogen-bond energy from ordinary water at its normal temperatures.
Graneau’s series of experiments, begun in the 1980s at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led to his learning that anomalous energy and force can come from exploding water.
He did experiments described as water arcs, in which a high-voltage electrical spark (like a short piece of lightning) sets up mechanical tension in a column of water. The stress breaks the liquid into droplets of fog, and the liberated energy–previously involved in bonding molecules together–accelerates the droplets into a powerful explosion, reaching speeds as fast as one thousand meters per second. From a thimbleful of water, the water explodes with a force that cuts neat holes in quarter-inch-thick aluminum plate. More kinetic (motion) energy comes out of the water explosion than was put in through the electricity. Strangely the water does not get hot. It takes far less electricity to liberate abundant energy by breaking water apart that way than it does to heat water to the boiling point to create steam for driving a turbine.
Noting that people must be baffled by why the news media and the U.S. Department of Energy are silent about the promising discoveries, Graneau explained that the wall of silence probably rises from a misunderstanding of the basics of water science. Chemists know about the bonds between hydrogen molecules in water, but don’t yet know that the bonds can be ruptured with mechanical tension, very efficiently, and that the freed bond energy can be captured in various ways. Graneau said, “We are very familiar with thermochemistry and electrochemistry, but mechanical chemistry is new to most of us.”
Could the water arc be scaled up to a size that would rival the output of nuclear or coal-burning power stations? Perhaps not easily; Graneau figured that designing a multitude of electric-arc accelerators to power a gigawatt electric power generating station is too complex, so he looked for a more practical way to free the internal energy in water. He looked to nature–water breaking apart as it hits rocks on the bottom of a waterfall. Something anomalous happens there to accelerate a film of water.
Searching the scientific literature, he found no insight on what happens to hydrogen bonds when water crashes onto a hard surface, changes direction ninety degrees, and speeds outward along the surface increasingly faster. Whatever causes that acceleration could point toward a more continuous and massive rupture of hydrogen bonds, Graneau realized. Drag forces could be breaking the bonds in water as it flows radially from the waterfall impact, just as those forces do in a hurricane when it contacts the ocean surface and released energy self-intensifies the hurricane. A similar release may be accelerating the flow sideways from under waterfalls.
Graneau then realized that an innovative turbine system that breaks bonds between water molecules as well as converts the energy of falling water into electricity would be simpler to design than scaled-up water-arc technology. Other scientists would also have to do and share experiments about what happens when a fall of water hits a horizontal surface and sideways expansion of a thin layer of water accelerates. The data could be put to significant use. Graneau envisions that the power of that acceleration could be gathered by blowing it into a spiral blade structure of an innovatively shaped surrounding turbine. A small model of what Graneau calls a “spider turbine” was photographed for an earlier issue of Infinite Energy.
In the same May/June 2010 issue of Infinite Energy as Graneau’s editorial, mechanical engineering expert Farzan Amini in Iran revealed other aspects of the power of water–pulsating helical vortex action in water and low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR, previously called cold fusion). To imagine what a helical vortex looks like, think of the DNA double-helix spiral. Amini’s conclusions are reinforced by his analysis of a 2009 explosion at a hydroelectric plant in Russia. The blast resulted from hydrogen bonds having been broken, freeing hydrogen, which ignited. Multiple miniature explosions could have been ignited by friction or by hydrogen contacting a violent plasma jet or an electric field. Explosive forces were more energetic than could be handled by a defective turbine whose bolts were loosening. The spinning turbine rose up and destroyed machinery while pressurized falling water continued to flood the room.
Why should we nontechnical people care what caused an explosion that brought down a hydroelectric plant’s turbine hall ceiling? The answer has to do with the potential for a better way to generate electricity, because a gigantic increase in the amount of energy occurred accidentally in one of that dam’s 156-ton turbines. If such forces were deliberately created and harnessed safely in power generating stations, there would be no excuse for building coal-burning power stations–or eight-hundred-foot-high dams.
The forces could be harnessed without destroying things. The Sayano-Shushenskaya explosion in Russia (referenced above) involved vibration of faulty equipment resulting in resonance that amplified the vortex power and pulsations being created in swirling water. Jets of hydrogen plasma were then created, electrons captured, and hydrogen bonds broken. Engineers try to avoid these conditions, but Amini says hydro turbines can act as a reactor for the vorticity and LENR process. Being a respectable engineer, he avoids speculating on what dramatic energy abundance would mean for people’s lives.
On a smaller scale, an engineer in the United States learned how to constructively harness a destructive force–the “water hammer” of common old household plumbing. Shock waves cause pipes to loudly rattle and knock when pressure inside suddenly changes. Industrial heating engineer James Griggs grasped such a pipe one day, felt the significant heat, and realized that the problem could be a solution–a new source of power. He developed, inside a metal drum, a rotating device whose indentations created shock waves that released heat into the churning liquid. The heat released represented at least 30 percent more energy than was used to electrically rotate the apparatus.
It’s not enough to make sufficient steam for turbines that make electricity, but enough to fire up the skeptics. They can’t argue with success, however. The Hydrosonic Pump is sold as industrial-sized boilers that don’t require any fuel to be burned in order to make steam or to heat liquids. Around the city of Atlanta, Georgia, public buildings have been using the device to save about a third of their heating costs. Customers include a fire station, a dry cleaning plant, a gymnasium, and the Atlanta Police Department.
Skeptics cite the physics law of conservation of energy, which says you always have to lose energy and can’t gain more than you put into something. That law was written when the steam engine was first studied. It is always valid in a closed system in which every input can be measured, but what if the imploding bubbles in Griggs’s and other people’s inventions are tapping into the background energy of the universe? Kanarev, for instance, told me that his plasma electrolysis system seems to involve input from what was once called the aether. Flawed experiments early in the twentieth century were cited by physicists as disproving the existence of such a nonmaterial field, but dissident scientists, including Tesla, have shown evidence of it all along, although not in the static form that the nineteenth century worldview described.
Back in the former Soviet Union other scientists have looked at vortex processes and imploding bubbles as a better way to generate electricity. The late A. I. Koldamasov’s device vibrates a mix of waters through a special material to produce heat energy in more abundance than the energy that powers the oscillator. The device was reported to put out forty kilowatts of heat energy with only two kilowatts of electrical input.
Vladimir Vysdotskii, a scientist with Kiev National Shevchenko University in the Ukraine, and colleagues are continuing with a similar invention involving the cavitation (violent caving-in or implosion) of tiny bubbles formed in fast-moving jets of water. He sees it as one of the possible ways to develop new energy technology.
The most passionate pioneer of vortex power was Austrian forester Viktor Schauberger. He used his knowledge of nature’s energy-gathering movements and built environmentally friendly energy machines. Throughout his life Schauberger was an extraordinarily keen observer of water’s ways in pristine ecosystems. Watching a babbling mountain stream, for instance, he noticed that each time it encounters a rock the water whirls and draws in air. The water breathes. In the spiraling of water, he recognized a basic movement of nature. He also noticed how turbulence plays its role in what becomes a pattern of natural self-organization–a stable, pulsating structure of water can be created out of swirling chaos. In Schauberger’s view, Nature is there for us to understand and then copy.
Schauberger built technical devices aimed at imitating those spinning movements of water that create special results. He built special twisted pipes that encouraged water or air to swirl and accelerate from suction, not rely on pressure. He made a home-appliance-sized power converter using vortex power. Today’s experimenters find it very difficult to reproduce his power generator. His grandson Jorg Schauberger advises researchers to develop their own ideas for a future of working with nature. The Schauberger message is “C2 –Comprehend and Copy Nature.”
Today’s dominant energy technologies do everything the wrong way, according to Schauberger’s view. Instead of nature’s creative motions–inward-spiraling, implosion- or suction-based, quiet, cooling, self-organizing vortices–the energy technologies that rule the world use pressure, explosions, heating, or burning and involve noise resulting from friction. No wonder people believe that technologies always create problems. They might consider that the type of technologies creates such messes and that visionaries such as Schauberger pointed in a different direction.
More Water-as-Fuel Heroes
As with Garrett and Puharich, Stanley Meyer was an American who drove a vehicle–in his case a modified dune buggy–running on water alone. He used hydrogen jolted out of water with the aid of resonance and a complex of related discoveries such as how to fracture hydrogen gas by ionization. Meyer said his process made the gas become very powerful, so a reduced amount could do more work than hydrogen from traditional electrolysis. This fits with other researchers’ claims of beneficially enriching the gas with electrons.
To many clean-energy researchers around the world Meyer is a hero, but to jubilant skeptics he was declared a fraud after a court ruling in 1996. This writer knew Meyer, however, and knew that what Meyer told the court was true as he saw it and that he could have lost his opportunity to patent parts of his invention if he revealed its secrets to the court. The patent office was at the time investigating his technology, as were the U.S. Department of Energy and his country’s military. Also, court-appointed expert witnesses who declared that his invention couldn’t work may have well been experts in standard electrolysis, but not experts in what he was actually doing.
Meyer carried on his work even after the court ruling. Two years later he was at a restaurant celebrating a promise of funding when he jumped up from the table, rushed outside declaring that he had been poisoned, and died in the parking lot.
More recently, television station engineer John Kanzius learned how to use radio frequencies to release a combustible fuel from salt water. Henry Garrett, Meyer, Kanzius, and others had no qualms about violating Faraday’s laws. Now they have joined Faraday by having left this physical realm and could be exchanging knowledge in an inventors’ heaven. The Stan Meyer whom I knew would be telling Faraday, “You’re a genius, Mike, but you didn’t have the benefit of modern electronics. If you had had my voltage-intensifier circuit, society would’ve been running cars and generators on water long ago.”
If Faraday were alive today, would he tell experimenters that their results are too good to be true and that they should give up trying? With his enthusiasm for discovery, it is likely Faraday instead would join the twenty-first-century maverick engineers who are producing hydrogen gases seven or ten times more efficiently than his nineteenth-century experiments predicted. The emerging science of super-efficient electrolysis promises a clean fuel produced at the point and time where it is needed.
One of the leaders of the hydrogen-from-water experimenters’ movement, Bob Boyce, says, “Water can be transformed into a perfect energy carrier. It is abundant, non-polluting and is eternal in nature. . . . After using it to gain a benefit of increased combustion efficiency and reduced emissions, we release it as clean water vapor where it will be recycled by nature. Hard to beat!”
Boyce generously shared the technical how-to details of his own water-as-fuel adventures and helped other hobbyists on the Internet. That type of sharing, called open sourcing, is becoming widespread. George Wiseman in western Canada was an early adopter of a “no-patent policy.” Instead of patenting his fuel-efficiency discoveries, he wrote how-to books. Buyers of his books were grateful and corresponded with him about their own experiences with his inventions. The next version of each of Wiseman’s books contains updated information, and the devices are improved as a result of his readers’ feedback.
Boyce’s story illustrates why some new-energy researchers become suspicious of the business-as-usual approach. He had worked in broadcast engineering and other electronics, so when he lived in southern Florida he opened an electronics business with a machine shop behind it. There he worked on racing boat engines and did jobs for local mini-sub researchers who were building drone boats for the government.
In 1988, his business began sponsoring a small-boat race team, which led him to experimenting with running the boats on hydrogen. Boyce was separating the hydrogen from water “on the fly”–on demand in the boat as needed–but he had never heard of Puharich, Meyer, or any other of his predecessors. At first he built fairly conventional electrolyzers. They were inefficient, but electricity consumption wasn’t a big problem since races were over quickly and batteries recharged.
His anomalous breakthrough was an accident. While his two boats were in racing events, a strange coincidence caught his attention. One of his boats would leap forward with unprecedented thrust whenever its engine ran in a certain revolutions-per-minute (rpm) range. The burst of power was as if a turbocharger had kicked in. Boyce began monitoring the boat’s electrical system and noticed that at those engine speeds a particular electrical waveform always appeared on the monitoring equipment. Later, he learned that the waveform was caused by electrical shorting within the boat engine’s alternator.
Boat racers welcome a burst of horsepower from an engine, if they know how to control it. Boyce learned that at a specific frequency range the electrolyzer suddenly bubbled out an overpowering amount of hydrogen gas. But how could he recreate that strange and beneficial result in other electrolyzers and at all engine speeds–and reliably? This mystery intrigued Boyce so much that he became more interested in research than racing.
Eventually he learned that recreating the effect didn’t require a faulty alternator. Instead, he could artificially induce the specific waveform. With signal generators, audio transformers, and amplifiers imitating that electrical signal, Boyce made test systems to reproduce the excess-hydrogen effect. The superimposed electrical frequencies seemed to cause the resonance effect in water molecules. Boyce began to understand why hydrogen and oxygen had separated easily whenever that waveform showed up on a scope.
Resonance Unlocks ?Water Molecules
Resonance is well known to musicians. When a musical instrument makes a tone at a certain frequency of vibrations, an instrument across the room picks up the vibration if one of its strings is tuned to that pitch. Another analogy for resonance is pushing a child on a swing. Small pushes, correctly timed, gradually result in impressive swinging. Similarly, sound vibrations or tiny pulses of voltage, if timed correctly, could do more work than comparatively massive amounts of electricity.
Because resonance can tear something apart, long columns of soldiers marching over a bridge break step so materials in the bridge don’t resonate with their rhythmic steps and begin to fall apart. At an atomic level, when a substance is shaken rhythmically at a frequency that entrains its atomic structure, the resonating movements build up, and bonds between atoms may be more likely to break apart. Making use of resonance is one way that water-as-fuel experiments have moved beyond Faraday’s electrolysis.
Another question Boyce encountered had to do with the type of hydrogen being released from water in his experiments. The common form of hydrogen is called diatomic–two atoms bound together. It seemed that an abundance of the form called monoatomic–single-atom hydrogen–was involved after he began making electrolytic cells with special geometries and roughing the steel plates to create more surface area.
Unknown to Boyce, there were similarities between the boxed arrays of parallel stainless steel squares he was putting together and what a scientist named William Rhodes had patented. Also unknown to Boyce, a Bulgarian immigrant in Australia, Yull Brown, had learned that similar apparatus did indeed release a special mix of gases.
Even without resonance effects, Boyce could double the output efficiency that Faraday had declared as the limit. What was in the special mixture? Boyce discovered that with the right frequencies, his electrolyzer could generate monoatomic as well as normal hydrogen and oxygen. When those unusual single-atom forms of hydrogen and oxygen recombined, they produced about four times the energy output of normal hydrogen and oxygen molecules. The output was stimulated into even higher efficiency by the multiple harmonic resonances that helped “tickle” water molecules apart. Boyce described the process as an electrochemical reaction, but the mixture of gases held even more mysteries than he knew at the time.
With an old Chrysler automobile hoisted on a jack stand in his shop, Boyce began testing how well a car engine ran on his hydrogen mixture. He knew how much horsepower was put out by the engine when standard processes created hydrogen gas, and now he was quadrupling its energy output. The strange gas mixture containing mono-atomic hydrogen behaves like hydrogen, he learned, but it also behaves better. It apparently contains more energy.
Criminals Halt Progress
Boyce hadn’t tried to market his breakthrough, but troubles began for him after he converted the Chrysler to run on hydrogen. He never had the chance to road test the system, because suddenly his shop became a target for criminals who broke into the building. They only vandalized or stole equipment related to the hydrogen project. The thieves took his electronics control unit and smashed the hydrolysis chamber containing the steel plates.
Boyce rebuilt a Plexiglas box and replaced the stolen electronics. However, he never finished the second unit for his engine because his shop was broken into again. Thieves stole his second prototype and an inverter he had modified. They smashed the last remaining Plexiglas box on his bench. Boyce gave up.
Walking away from the investment of time and money was wrenching. He had spent many thousands of dollars on materials and machining. Boyce later suspected that one of his hired workers might have leaked information to someone who then tried to either steal the technology or stop Boyce from working on it. He converted the boat engines back to using ordinary racing fuel and sold his race boats. In a final break-in, no damage was done inside his shop; apparently the criminals could see he was no longer experimenting with water as fuel. Boyce retired in 1991.
Eventually Boyce learned that what he had stumbled on had already been discovered and was known as Brown’s gas, HHO, or hydroxyl. Ruggero Santilli has a related gaseous fuel he calls magnegas. The process of making it can result in the cleanup of sewage waters and liquid industrial wastes.
Many experimenters want to learn how to run a car solely on water, and they try to replicate Meyer’s invention. Some others are using plans given out by Paul Pantone and injecting water vapor into lawn mower engines. A few mavericks are tweaking those instructions in order to run a stationary electric generator on water. The largest of such international subcultures of experimenters is the “hydroxy booster” community, perhaps because the project looks easier than a completely water-powered engine. Hydroxy gas is a nickname for oxyhydrogen, a two-to-one mix of hydrogen and oxygen gases produced from the electrolysis of water. The hydroxy experimenters’ usual priority is to boost miles-per-gallon for a car, truck, or motorcycle. Improving exhaust emissions happens at the same time.
Rhodes’s, Brown’s, ?or Hydroxy Gas
Rhodes was first to patent a process for making oxyhydrogen, but Brown was first to point out its unusual properties. As a result, the name Brown’s gas is widely used. Progressing further in understanding the gas, Wiseman gives talks about electrically expanded water. Companies such as his Eagle Research sell equipment and the plans for making electrolyzers.
Builders of hydroxy boosters have up to now been outsiders. Their credibility was shredded when a television documentary exposed the peddling of an overhyped electrolysis system and the public received the impression that the entire field of endeavor was fraudulent. On a separate television program, an entertaining duo ridiculed the field by humorously demonstrating a poorly built electrolysis unit. The televised gadget even lacked safety features such as the flashback-arresting bubbler that responsible builders include when they build a unit. The unspoken take-away message: “Hydroxy boosters are unsafe, ineffective, and a joke.”
However, neither program contacted any of the many builders of successful projects. Meanwhile the builders report hydroxy boosters producing as much as sixteen liters of nonpolluting gas per hour, using a fraction of the electricity that science books say is needed.
If the experimenters are indeed running engines on hydrogen or boosting mileage with hydrogen, something impossible is happening. Some of the hydroxy booster outputs are said to exceed Faraday’s limit by seven, ten, and even a hundred times. Who is correct?
Science writer Moray King stands in the middle of the controversy and declares that both sides are talking past each other. He says each is speaking about a different reality.
• Skeptics are correct in citing Faraday and the laws of thermodynamics.
• At the same time, hydroxy booster builders and replicators of Meyer’s water fuel cell are correct in citing the excess power output that they see.
• Neither side is fully correct. Neither should be talking about power from hydrogen because, surprisingly, hydrogen is not the source of excess power in these inventions, King says.
King, author of Tapping the Zero-Point Energy and other books, backs up his conclusions with hundreds of references to peer-reviewed science journals. He concludes that “charged water clusters” are responsible for the anomalous results and possibly for tapping into the background energy of the universe. Meyer once told me the background energy surrounding and permeating us–whether it’s called aether or zero point energy–was the ultimate source of the excess power converted by his own invention.
The hydroxy community wants academics to research their field. They welcomed Chris Eckman, an Idaho State University graduate student of nuclear engineering, when he stepped outside academia one summer weekend to attend an ExtraOrdinary Technology Conference in Utah. There he heard differing definitions of Brown’s gas, so he returned to school and analyzed and experimented with the mysterious gas for two years. He shared his results with the next such conference–as a speaker at the age of twenty-four. Eckman’s surprising findings included the finding that Brown’s gas is not made of hydrogen–whether single-atom or two-atom molecules. Instead it is a gaseous form of water with excess electrons.
It’s time to solve these water-related mysteries–for clean energy technologies. Working outside of military research facilities and corporate laboratories that don’t intend to freely share their discoveries with the peoples of the world, those who are developing the most potentially world-changing energy science are often self-funded. To buy electronic parts, materials, and machining, these individuals may spend their savings and sink into credit card debt, then borrow from family and friends.
Just as the personal-computer revolution began in garage workshops, much of the energy revolution is homegrown. At this time a large part of it is a grassroots movement, seeded by shared ideas and spreading over the Internet. Venture capitalists are willing to step in when an invention has gone through all the prototype stages to the completion and certified testing of a commercial product, but are not willing to fund the research-and-development stages.
Ordinary Water, ?”Greater than Fire”
There are exceptions to that widespread picture of inventors who lack funding and a team of scientists to further develop their energy breakthroughs. Dr. Randell Mills of Princeton, New Jersey, stands out as exceptional. He has a medical degree from Harvard University and studied electrical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mills and his colleagues have had more than eighty peer-reviewed science papers published about his new chemical process that releases energy from hydrogen atoms without combustion and without any harmful radiation.
As this is written, Mills’s company, BlackLight Power Inc., has signed another commercial agreement, this time licensing an Italian energy provider to use the BlackLight process to make heat. That abundant heat can be turned into electricity. Mills has a further invention that bypasses the heat phase; the process goes directly to electricity.
BlackLight Power’s tag line is “Greater than Fire.” The company says its new energy source means efficient generators of electricity could be built in any size. The power density of the process competes with that of coal and nuclear fission, so the company says its energy source, when in the future placed into buyers’ hands by licensees, can be used for affordable heating and electricity generation and in powering vehicles.
How did he leap from inventing for the medical field to saving the world from fuel pollution? Mathematics was the bridge; Mills developed his own unified physics theory. To test his theory’s predictions, he experimented with ordinary water and a catalyst. Water is made of molecules that each bind an oxygen atom with two hydrogen atoms. His theory predicted that a hydrogen atom’s electron orbit could be tightened, forming a smaller atom that he calls a “hydrino.” (Other private laboratories more recently getting similar results call their process “fractional hydrogen” and seek other theories to explain it.)
Although Mills’ theory is controversial, his experiments are successful and have been replicated by independent laboratories. A Rowan University team found that his heated-hydrogen-and-catalyst reaction produces far more heat than their chemists can account for with standard chemistry.
By-products of the BlackLight process are:
• Novel hydrogen compounds that are being made into useful new materials. Perhaps such discoveries will prevent the need for mining certain metals from the Earth.
• A stable hydrino gas. Highly buoyant, it floats harmlessly up through the atmosphere to space if released.
Since the process releases about two hundred times more energy than comes from burning an equal amount of hydrogen gas, very little water is needed to provide the hydrogen. The company says only one-millionth of a liter of water per second is needed per kilowatt of electric power. This means the system may be self-contained except for replacing the hydrogen consumed to make hydrinos.
Direct-to-Electricity ?is Game-Changing
The company’s new way to develop power by the reaction of hydrogen to form hydrinos is more efficient and cost effective. BlackLight’s technology, called Catalyst-Induced-Hydrino-Transition (CIHT), is a unique electrochemical cell that goes directly to electricity. Capital costs are projected to be only about two percent of the cost of building conventional power systems. Fossil fuel and nuclear power plants rely on generating heat to create steam that turns turbines. The new electrochemical cell is described as suitable for generating power at any scale–small appliance to large power plant. Mills pictures a concept electric car whose drive train would be powered by an onboard process without turbines or heat engines.
Instead of the expensive standard version of a hydrogen economy–one that requires government subsidies–will we instead enjoy a low-impact fractional-hydrogen economy? Mills’s invention if brought to market would make hydrogen pipelines, fueling stations, and storage tanks obsolete. BlackLight Power products and other emerging inventions also eliminate the need for costly hydrogen fuel cells.
The financial weight and political power of the dominant energy industries discourage some energy innovators but haven’t stopped Mills. Inventors hear stories about opposition to some energy innovators’ efforts. Mills however does not report having suffered the physical harassment that some inventors have endured. Opposition came instead in the form of public ridicule from a sector that relies on government grants.
For instance, one physicist connected to the hot-fusion research establishment declared that science already knows everything about the hydrogen atom. Mills didn’t waste his time arguing with such critics. More seriously, however, at a point when patenting was crucial to getting investors there was evidence of behind-the-scenes interference with Mills’s patent application.
The inventive doctor found ways to get money for his energy research. Since Mills’s mathematics solves equations for figuring out the physical structure of electrons in atoms and molecules, a subsidiary of BlackLight is selling a separate product that does not threaten the energy establishment. Biological and industrial scientists buy the company’s software product to map properties of various metals and chemicals.
Meanwhile, BlackLight Power plans to license its heat-producing energy process. Licensees might retrofit existing power plants or hire architects, engineering firms, and equipment manufacturers to build large or small power plants.
Where Can the Human ?Family Go with This?
There are more breakthrough water-and-energy technologies than one article can cover. For instance, cleaning up polluted rivers can be done by a ready-to-use Vapor Condensation Distillation unit developed by a California man, Stephan Sears. His company’s plans include solving water problems in undeveloped countries where groundwater, rivers, lakes, or wells have been polluted. Technically it would be easy–combining the unit with a small photovoltaic (solar cell) panel, small windmill, or a run-of-the-river turbine that generates electricity. Only a small fraction of the electricity is needed to run the water distillation process; the unit uses very little power because it recycles its heat and has other exceptionally efficient features.
Many of the researchers look for grassroots support as the way to get their innovations into the marketplace. The people of Earth are a superpower themselves, if united.
The alternative to worldwide cooperation is grim–segments of the human family each allowing their national leaders to use the fact of water shortages to justify continued warring over scarce resources. The public can insist on these outside-the-box breakthroughs. Currently government agencies buy only politically safe research–lesser advances that don’t really threaten the oil industry. The public could be asking, “Why do we allow technicians to dig and drill into our planet for black fuels? Don’t they know what can be done with just a bucket of precious water? They could be powering or heating whatever is needed, without burning anything.”
The Gateway ?to Infinite Energy
A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. –Max Planck
Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world’s machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other of the common fuels. –Nikola Tesla
Following the decimation of Tesla around the turn of the century, similar tactics have continued against follow-on inventors who discovered overunity systems and attempted to complete them and bring them to market. The suppression continues to this day, as can be attested by several living overunity inventors and inventor groups. For more than a century there has indeed been a giant, unwritten conspiracy of some of the most powerful cartels on Earth, to continue the curtailment of the electrical engineering model and practice, and to continue to suppress overunity inventions and inventors.
More than a century ago and along with its very birthing, our “modern” classical electrodynamics and electrical engineering science was deliberately mutilated and crippled, specifically so that COP > 1.0 and self-powering electrical systems–asymmetrically powering loads extracted from “free EM wind energy flows” from the vacuum/space itself–would never be known or developed by our electrical engineers. . . . It has directly prevented struggling nations having no oil or gas resources from achieving a modern economy (which is based on cheap energy). This has left those nations impoverished, with their peoples starving and miserable and disease-wracked. Hundreds of millions of deaths from starvation and disease have resulted worldwide. It has “welded into our minds and our very brains” the mistaken notion that–other than a wee bit of wind power, water power, and solar power–we can only have “energy from consumption of fuel.”
Our electrical engineers and scientists today are totally unaware that every generator already pours out more than a trillion times as much EM energy flow from the vacuum, as is in the mechanical energy flow we input to the generator shaft. –Thomas E. Bearden
The release of the energy of the atom is as yet in an extremely embryonic stage; humanity little knows the extent or the nature of the energies which have been tapped and released. There are many types of atoms, constituting the “world substance”; each can release its own type of force; this is one of the secrets which the new age will in time reveal. . . . I would call your attention to the words, “the liberation of energy.” It is liberation which is the keynote of the new era, just as it has ever been the keynote of the spiritually oriented aspirant. . . . This liberating energy will usher in the new civilization, the new and better world and the finer, more spiritual conditions. The highest dreams of those who love their fellowmen can become practical possibilities through the right use of this liberated energy, if the real values are taught, emphasized and applied to daily living. –Djwhal Khul
Teaser image by likeablerodent, courtesy of Creative Commons license.