Mycoremediation and Its Applications to Oil Spills

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This week, with some of the RS team off the grid at the annual Burning Man festival in Black Rock City, Nevada, we’ll be presenting highlights from the archives. The following article first ran on Reality Sandwich on May 26, 2010.

 

The BP oil spill has inflicted enormous harm in the Gulf of Mexico and will continue to do so for months, if not decades, to come. I have many thoughts on this disaster. My first reaction is that when the skin of the Earth is punctured, bad things can happen. 

Clearly, this disaster could and should have been prevented. Despite all their assurances of safety, BP and/or BP’s subcontractors, failed to ensure the functionality of the emergency equipment on the Deep Horizon rig. The oil industry claims that further regulation will handcuff them, but it is now obvious that more steps need to be taken to prevent a catastrophe like this from ever happening again.

However, this spill did happen, and we now must deal with the aftermath. Although estimates have been that BP could be liable for more than 14 billion dollars in clean up damages, very few in the media have mentioned the long-term, generational consequences of this oil spill. There will inevitably be a surge in cancer cases, widespread degradation of wildlife habitat, and an array of diverse and complex strains on local communities, our nation, and the planetary ecosphere as a whole. We all know that the seas are connected, and ultimately our biosphere suffers globally when suffering locally. Now as the hurricane season approaches, we may see catastrophes converge to create what may be the greatest ecological disaster in hundreds of years. 

While we will need a wide array of efforts to address this complex problem, mycoremediation is a valuable component in our toolset of solutions. Mycoremediation has demonstrated positive results, verified by scientists in many countries. However, there is more oil spilled than there is currently mycelium available. Much more mycelium is needed and, fortunately, we know how to generate it.

Pouring oil on straw

 

Here is what we know about mycoremediation, based on tests conducted by myself, my colleagues and other researchers who have published their results. (See attached references.)

 

What we know:

1.)    More than 120 novel enzymes have been identified from mushroom-forming fungi.

2.)    Various enzymes breakdown a wide assortment of hydrocarbon toxins.

3.)    My work with Battelle Laboratories, in collaboration with their scientists, resulted in TAH’s (Total Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in diesel contaminated soil to be reduced from 10,000 ppm to < 200 ppm in 16 weeks from a 25% inoculation rate of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelium, allowing the remediated soil to be approved for use as landscaping soil along highways. (Thomas et al., 1999)

4.)    Oil contains a wide variety of toxins, many of which are carcinogens.

5.)    Mycelium more readily degrades lower molecular weight hydrocarbons (3,4,5 ring) than heavier weight hydrocarbons. However, the heavier weight hydrocarbons are reduced via mycelial enzymes into lighter weight hydrocarbons, allowing for a staged reduction with subsequent mycelial treatments.

6.)    Aged mycelium from oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) mixed in with ‘compost’ made from woodchips and yard waste (50:50 by volume) resulted in far better degradation of hydrocarbons than oyster mushroom mycelium or compost alone.

7.)    Oyster mycelium does not degrade keratin-based hair as it produces little or no keratinases, whereas other mold fungi such as Chaetomium species (which include some high temperature-tolerant leaf mold fungi) produce keratinases.

8.)    Worms die when put into contact with high concentrations of hydrocarbon saturated soils, but live after mycelial treatments reduce the toxins below the lethal thresholds.

9.)    Spring inoculations work better than fall inoculations as the mycelium has more time to grow-out. Bioregional specificities must be carefully considered.  

10.) Amplifying native mushroom species in the bioregion impacted by toxic spills work better than non-native species.

11.) More funding is needed to better understand and implement mycoremediation technologies.

12.) Oil spills will occur in the future-we need to be ready for them!

Oyster mushrooms on oily straw

 

What we don’t know:

1.)    The effect of salt water on the growth of mycelium on hair mats soaked in oil. The Presidio project with Matter of Trust did not test the hair mats used to soak up the Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco bay. The hair mats that were tested were ones that were put into contact with motor oil and Bunker C oil collected from the bowels of the Cosco Busan, without saltwater.

2.)    The differential gradients of decomposition of the complex oil constituents from contact with Oyster mushroom mycelium. Different toxins degrade at different rates when placed into contact with mycelium.

3.)    The variables that influence the success of mycoremediation, particularly since the targeted toxins are often complex mixtures of volatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons.

4.)    How many other species of fungi could be applied for mycoremediation beyond the few that have been tested? Up to now, Oyster mushroom mycelium (Pleurotus ostreatus) has been tested successfully but there are literally thousands of other species yet to be tested for mycoremediation.

5.)    How each fungal species used pre-selects the subsequent biological populations and how these further enable plant communities as habitats recover from toxic waste exposure.  

6.)    Whether or not the mushrooms grown on decomposing toxic wastes are safe to eat.

7.)    To what degree of decomposition by mycelium of toxic soils makes the soils safe for food crops.

8.)    How economically practical will it be to remove mushrooms that have hyper-accumulated heavy metals-will this be a viable remediation strategy? Which species are best for hyper accumulating specific metals?

9.)    How to finance/design composting centers around population centers near pollution threats?

10.) How to train-on a massive scale-the mycotechnicians needed to implement mycoremediation?

11.) How to fund “Myco-U’s”, learning centers with emphasis on implementing myco-solutions to human made and natural catastrophes?

12.) How extensively and diverse will mycoremediation practices be needed in the future?

Oysters on oil 

 

How can we help?

Knowing that the extent of this disaster eclipses our mycological resources should not be a reason to not act.

I proposed in 1994 that we have Mycological Response Teams (MRT’s) in place to react to catastrophic events, from hurricanes to oil spills. We need to preposition composting and mycoremediation centers adjacent to population centers. We should set MRT’s into motion, centralized in communities, which are actively involved in recycling, composting and permaculture-utilizing debris from natural or manmade calamities to generate enzymes and rebuild healthy local soils. 

I see the urgent need to set up webinar-like, internet based modules of education to disseminate methods for mycoremediation training so people throughout the world can benefit from the knowledge we have gained through the past decade of research.  Such hubs of learning could cross-educate others and build a body of knowledge that would be further perfected over time, benefiting from the successes and failures of those in different bioregions. The cumulative knowledge gained from a centralized data hub could emerge as a robust yet flexible platform that could help generations to come. Scientists, policy makers, and citizens would be empowered with practical mycoremediation tools for addressing environmental disasters.

There are additional opportunities here. By encouraging strategically placed gourmet mushroom production centers near debris fields from natural and human-made disasters, we can open a pathway for mycoremediation.  The ‘aged compost’ that is produced after mushrooms are harvested is rich in enzymes-a value-added by-product and this ‘waste’ product is aptly suited for mycoremediation purposes. What most people do not realize is that most mushroom farms generate this compost by the tons and are eager for it to be used elsewhere. 

On a grand scale, I envision that we, as a people, develop a common myco-ecology of consciousness and address these common goals through the use of mycelium. To do so means we need to spread awareness and information. Please spread the word of mycelium. Educate friends, family and policy makers about mycological solutions. Bring your local leaders up the learning curve on how fungi can decompose toxins, rebuild soils and strengthen our food chains. What we lack is the widespread availability of mycologically skilled technicians and educators and a more mycologically informed public. We need a paradigm shift, a multi-generational educational infrastructure, bringing fungal solutions to the forefront of viable options to mitigate disasters. An unfortunate circumstance we face is that the field of mycology is poorly funded in a time of intense need.

To support this expanded mycological awareness, I offer my books as resources-especially Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World and Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms.  Also, please see my talk on Ted.com (www.ted.com/speakers/paul_stamets.html)-this is an excellent primer for those wanting to understand how mushrooms and fungi can help mitigate disasters and heal ecosystems.

Let’s become part of the solution. We may not have all the answers now but we can work towards an integrated strategy, flexible in its design, and yet target specific to these types of disasters. We should work in preparation to resolve ecological emergencies before and after they occur.  Together, we can protect and heal our communities and ecosystems. 

Oysters on oil

 

THE PROBLEM: OIL IS A COMPLEX MIXTURE OF TOXIC HYDROCARBONS

Not many people, even experts, fully grasp the diverse range of toxins that are present in oil. Bunker C oil is used as a fuel, particularly in cargo ships, and is especially ‘dirty’. Here is a list of some of the hydrocarbons typically found in Bunker C oil:

CONTAMINANTS IN BUNKER C OIL

cis/trans-Decalin

C1-Fluoranthenes/Pyrenes

17a/b,21b/a 28,30-Bisnorhopane (T14a)

C1-Decalins

C2-Fluoranthenes/Pyrenes

C30 Tricyclic Terpane-22R

C2-Decalins

C3-Fluoranthenes/Pyrenes

17a(H)-22,29,30-Trisnorhopane-TM (T12)

C3-Decalins

C4-Fluoranthenes/Pyrenes

17a/b,21b/a 28,30-Bisnorhopane (T14a)

C4-Decalins

Naphthobenzothiophenes

17a(H)-22,29,30-Trisnorhopane-TM (T12)

Benzothiophene

C1-Naphthobenzothiophenes

17a(H),21b(H)-25-Norhopane (T14b)

C1-Benzo(b)thiophenes

C2-Naphthobenzothiophenes

30-Norhopane (T15)

C2-Benzo(b)thiophenes

C3-Naphthobenzothiophenes

18a(H)-30-Norneohopane-C29Ts (T16)

C3-Benzo(b)thiophenes

C4-Naphthobenzothiophenes

17a(H)-Diahopane (X)

C4-Benzo(b)thiophenes

Benz[a]anthracene

30-Normoretane (T17)

Naphthalene

Chrysene/Triphenylene

18a(H)&18b(H)-Oleananes (T18)

C1-Naphthalenes

C1-Chrysenes

Hopane (T19)

C2-Naphthalenes

C2-Chrysenes

Moretane (T20)

C3-Naphthalenes

C3-Chrysenes

30-Homohopane-22S (T21)

C4-Naphthalene

C4-Chrysenes

30-Homohopane-22R (T22)

Biphenyl

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

30,31-Bishomohopane-22S (T26)

Dibenzofuran

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

30,31-Bishomohopane-22R (T27)

Acenaphthylene

Benzo[a]fluoranthene

30,31-Trishomohopane-22S (T30)

Acenaphthene

Benzo[e]pyrene

30,31-Trishomohopane-22R (T31)

Fluorene

Benzo[a]pyrene

Tetrakishomohopane-22S (T32)

C1-Fluorenes

Perylene

Tetrakishomohopane-22R (T33)

C2-Fluorenes

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

Pentakishomohopane-22S (T34)

C3-Fluorenes

Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

Pentakishomohopane-22R (T35)

Anthracene

Benzo[g,h,i]perylene

13b(H),17a(H)-20S-Diacholestane (S4)

Phenanthrene

C23 Tricyclic Terpane (T4)

13b(H),17a(H)-20R-Diacholestane (S5)

C1-Phenanthrenes/Anthracenes

C24 Tricyclic Terpane (T5)

13b,17a-20S-Methyldiacholestane (S8)

C2-Phenanthrenes/Anthracenes

C25 Tricyclic Terpane (T6)

14a(H),17a(H)-20S-Cholestane (S12)

C3-Phenanthrenes/Anthracenes

C24 Tetracyclic Terpane (T6a)

14a(H),17a(H)-20R-Cholestane (S17)

C4-Phenanthrenes/Anthracenes

C26 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T6b)

13b,17a-20R-Ethyldiacholestane (S18)

Retene

C26 Tricyclic Terpane-22R (T6c)

13a,17b-20S-Ethyldiacholestane (S19)

Dibenzothiophene

C28 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T7)

14a,17a-20S-Methylcholestane (S20)

C1-Dibenzothiophenes

C28 Tricyclic Terpane-22R (T8)

14a,17a-20R-Methylcholestane (S24)

C2-Dibenzothiophenes

C29 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T9)

14a(H),17a(H)-20S-Ethylcholestane (S25)

C3-Dibenzothiophenes

C29 Tricyclic Terpane-22R (T10)

14a(H),17a(H)-20R-Ethylcholestane (S28)

C4-Dibenzothiophenes

18a-22,29,30-Trisnorneohopane-TS (T11)

14b(H),17b(H)-20R-Cholestane (S14)

Benzo(b)fluorene

C30 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T11b)

14b(H),17b(H)-20S-Cholestane (S15)

Fluoranthene

C30 Tricyclic Terpane-22R

14b,17b-20R-Methylcholestane (S22)

Pyrene

17a(H)-22,29,30-Trisnorhopane-TM (T12)

14b,17b-20S-Methylcholestane

 

Oysters on oil

 

Toward an Integrated Solution: Mycomediation Resources

Recommended texts:

Gadd, G. 2001. Fungi in Bioremediation. Cambridge University Press.

Singh, H. 2006. Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation.  Wiley Interscience.

Stamets, P. 2005. Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California.

 

Recommended articles:

M. Bhatt, T. Cajthaml and V. Šašek, 2002. “Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soils.” Folia Microbiologica, Springer Netherlands,Volume 47, Number 3 / June.

Cajthaml, T., M. Bhatt, V. Šašek, and V. Mateju. 2002. “Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by composting:
A case study.” Folia Microbiologica 47(6): 696-700.

Cajthaml, T., M. Moder, P. Kacer, V. Šašek, and P. Popp. 2002. “o train – on a massive scale – Study of fungal degradation products of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometry detection. ” Journal of Chromatography A, 974: 213-222.

Eggen, T., and V. Šašek. 2002. “Use of edible and medicinal oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kimm.] spent compost in remediation of chemically polluted soils.” International Journal of MedicinalMushrooms 4: 225-261.

Giubilei, Maria A; Leonardi, Vanessa; Federici, Ermanno; Covino, Stefano; Šašek, Vaclav; Novotny, Cenek; Federici, Federico; D’Annibale, Alessandro; Petruccioli, Maurizio, 2009, June. “Effect of mobilizing agents on mycoremediation and impact on the indigenous microbiota.” Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Volume 84, Number 6, June 2009, pp. 836-844(9). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Šašek, V., John A. Glaser, Philippe Baveye, 2000. “The utilization of bioremediation to reduce soil contamination: Problems and Solutions.” Nato Science Series IV. Earth and Environmental Sciences vol. 19.

Šašek, V., T. Cajthaml & M. Bhatt, 2001. “Use of fungal technology in soil remediation: a case study.” Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 3: 5-14.

Šašek, V. 2003. “Why mycoremediations have not yet come into practice” The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions, 247-266. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Thomas S., P. Becker, M.R. Pinza , J.Q. Word, 1999. “Mycoremediation of Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Soil.” NASA no. 19990031874.

Thomas, S., 2000. Personal Communication. “Subsequently to the end of the study, WSDOT retested the soils at its own expense, with a more detailed sampling regime, and found that it did indeed meet the EPA criterion of less than or equal to 200 ppm TPH, which allowed WSDOT to use the soil in highway landscaping.” Nov. 30. Email to Paul Stamets.

Oyster kit floating on water

For more information, please visit:

http://www.fungi.com/mycotech/mycova.html

http://www.fungi.com/mycotech/petroleum_problem.html

Copyright (2010) by Paul E. Stamets.

Photos of ‘”Oysters on Oil ” are by Susan Thomas of Battelle Laboratories (Thomas et al., 1999).

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How Much Does LSD Cost? When shopping around for that magical psychedelic substance, there can be many uncertainties when new to buying LSD. You may be wondering how much does LSD cost? In this article, we will discuss what to expect when purchasing LSD on the black market, what forms LSD is sold in, and the standard breakdown of buying LSD in quantity.   Navy Use of LSD on the Dark Web The dark web is increasingly popular for purchasing illegal substances. The US Navy has now noticed this trend with their staff. Read to learn more.   Having Sex on LSD: What You Need to Know Can you have sex on LSD? Read our guide to learn everything about sex on acid, from lowered inhibitions to LSD users quotes on sex while tripping.   A Drug That Switches off an LSD Trip A pharmaceutical company is developing an “off-switch” drug for an LSD trip, in the case that a bad trip can happen. Some would say there is no such thing.   Queen of Hearts: An Interview with Liz Elliot on Tim Leary and LSD The history of psychedelia, particularly the British experience, has been almost totally written by men. Of the women involved, especially those who were in the thick of it, little has been written either by or about them. A notable exception is Liz Elliot.   LSD Guide: Effects, Common Uses, Safety LSD, Lysergic acid diethylamide, or just acid is one of the most important psychedelics ever discovered. What did history teach us?   Microdosing LSD & Common Dosage Explained Microdosing, though imperceivable, is showing to have many health benefits–here is everything you want to know about microdosing LSD.   LSD Resources Curious to learn more about LSD? This guide includes comprehensive LSD resources containing books, studies and more.   LSD as a Spiritual Aid There is common consent that the evolution of mankind is paralleled by the increase and expansion of consciousness. From the described process of how consciousness originates and develops, it becomes evident that its growth depends on its faculty of perception. Therefore every means of improving this faculty should be used.   Legendary LSD Blotter Art: A Hidden Craftsmanship Have you ever heard of LSD blotter art? Explore the trippy world of LSD art and some of the top artists of LSD blotter art.   LSD and Exercise: Does it Work? LSD and exercise? Learn why high-performing athletes are taking hits of LSD to improve their overall potential.   Jan Bastiaans Treated Holocaust Survivors with LSD Dutch psychiatrist, Jan Bastiaans administered LSD-assisted therapy to survivors of the Holocaust. A true war hero and pioneer of psychedelic-therapy.   LSD and Spiritual Awakening I give thanks for LSD, which provided the opening that led me to India in 1971 and brought me to Neem Karoli Baba, known as Maharajji. Maharajji is described by the Indians as a “knower of hearts.”   How LSD is Made: Everything You Need to Know Ever wonder how to make LSD? Read our guide to learn everything you need to know about the procedures of how LSD is made.   How to Store LSD: Best Practices Learn the best way to store LSD, including the proper temperature and conditions to maximize how long LSD lasts when stored.   Bicycle Day: The Discovery of LSD Every year on April 19th, psychonauts join forces to celebrate Bicycle Day. Learn about the famous day when Albert Hoffman first discovered the effects of LSD.   Cary Grant: A Hollywood Legend On LSD Cary Grant was a famous actor during the 1930’s-60’s But did you know Grant experimented with LSD? Read our guide to learn more.   Albert Hofmann: LSD — My Problem Child Learn about Albert Hofmann and his discovery of LSD, along with the story of Bicycle Day and why it marks a historic milestone.   Babies are High: What Does LSD Do To Your Brain What do LSD and babies have in common? Researchers at the Imperial College in London discover that an adult’s brain on LSD looks like a baby’s brain.   1P LSD: Effects, Benefits, Safety Explained 1P LSD is an analogue of LSD and homologue of ALD-25. Here is everything you want to know about 1P LSD and how it compares to LSD.   Francis Crick, DNA & LSD Type ‘Francis Crick LSD’ into Google, and the result will be 30,000 links. Many sites claim that Crick (one of the two men responsible for discovering the structure of DNA), was either under the influence of LSD at the time of his revelation or used the drug to help with his thought processes during his research. Is this true?   What Happens If You Overdose on LSD? A recent article presented three individuals who overdosed on LSD. Though the experience was unpleasant, the outcomes were remarkably positive.

The Ayahuasca Experience
Ayahuasca is both a medicine and a visionary aid. You can employ ayahuasca for physical, mental, emotional and spiritual repair, and you can engage with the power of ayahuasca for deeper insight and realization. If you consider attainment of knowledge in the broadest perspective, you can say that at all times, ayahuasca heals.

 

Trippy Talk: Meet Ayahuasca with Sitaramaya Sita and PlantTeachers
Sitaramaya Sita is a spiritual herbalist, pusangera, and plant wisdom practitioner formally trained in the Shipibo ayahuasca tradition.

 

The Therapeutic Value of Ayahuasca
My best description of the impact of ayahuasca is that it’s a rocket boost to psychospiritual growth and unfolding, my professional specialty during my thirty-five years of private practice.

 

Microdosing Ayahuasca: Common Dosage Explained
What is ayahuasca made of and what is considered a microdose? Explore insights with an experienced Peruvian brewmaster and learn more about this practice.

 

Ayahuasca Makes Neuron Babies in Your Brain
Researchers from Beckley/Sant Pau Research Program have shared the latest findings in their study on the effects of ayahuasca on neurogenesis.

 

The Fatimiya Sufi Order and Ayahuasca
In this interview, the founder of the Fatimiya Sufi Order,  N. Wahid Azal, discusses the history and uses of plant medicines in Islamic and pre-Islamic mystery schools.

 

Consideration Ayahuasca for Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Research indicates that ayahuasca mimics mechanisms of currently accepted treatments for PTSD. In order to understand the implications of ayahuasca treatment, we need to understand how PTSD develops.

 

Brainwaves on Ayahuasca: A Waking Dream State
In a study researchers shared discoveries showing ingredients found in Ayahuasca impact the brainwaves causing a “waking dream” state.

 

Cannabis and Ayahuasca: Mixing Entheogenic Plants
Cannabis and Ayahuasca: most people believe they shouldn’t be mixed. Read this personal experience peppered with thoughts from a pro cannabis Peruvian Shaman.

 

Ayahuasca Retreat 101: Everything You Need to Know to Brave the Brew
Ayahuasca has been known to be a powerful medicinal substance for millennia. However, until recently, it was only found in the jungle. Word of its deeply healing and cleansing properties has begun to spread across the world as many modern, Western individuals are seeking spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical well-being. More ayahuasca retreat centers are emerging in the Amazon and worldwide to meet the demand.

 

Ayahuasca Helps with Grief
A new study published in psychopharmacology found that ayahuasca helped those suffering from the loss of a loved one up to a year after treatment.

 

Ayahuasca Benefits: Clinical Improvements for Six Months
Ayahuasca benefits can last six months according to studies. Read here to learn about the clinical improvements from drinking the brew.

 

Ayahuasca Culture: Indigenous, Western, And The Future
Ayahuasca has been use for generations in the Amazon. With the rise of retreats and the brew leaving the rainforest how is ayahuasca culture changing?

 

Ayahuasca Guide: Effects, Common Uses, Safety
The Amazonian brew, Ayahuasca has a long history and wide use. Read our guide to learn all about the tea from its beginnings up to modern-day interest.

 

Ayahuasca and the Godhead: An Interview with Wahid Azal of the Fatimiya Sufi Order
Wahid Azal, a Sufi mystic of The Fatimiya Sufi Order and an Islamic scholar, talks about entheogens, Sufism, mythology, and metaphysics.

 

Ayahuasca and the Feminine: Women’s Roles, Healing, Retreats, and More
Ayahuasca is lovingly called “grandmother” or “mother” by many. Just how feminine is the brew? Read to learn all about women and ayahuasca.

What Is the Standard of Care for Ketamine Treatments?
Ketamine therapy is on the rise in light of its powerful results for treatment-resistant depression. But, what is the current standard of care for ketamine? Read to find out.

What Is Dissociation and How Does Ketamine Create It?
Dissociation can take on multiple forms. So, what is dissociation like and how does ketamine create it? Read to find out.

Having Sex on Ketamine: Getting Physical on a Dissociative
Curious about what it could feel like to have sex on a dissociate? Find out all the answers in our guide to sex on ketamine.

Special K: The Party Drug
Special K refers to Ketamine when used recreationally. Learn the trends as well as safety information around this substance.

Kitty Flipping: When Ketamine and Molly Meet
What is it, what does it feel like, and how long does it last? Read to explore the mechanics of kitty flipping.

Ketamine vs. Esketamine: 3 Important Differences Explained
Ketamine and esketamine are used to treat depression. But what’s the difference between them? Read to learn which one is right for you: ketamine vs. esketamine.

Guide to Ketamine Treatments: Understanding the New Approach
Ketamine is becoming more popular as more people are seeing its benefits. Is ketamine a fit? Read our guide for all you need to know about ketamine treatments.

Ketamine Treatment for Eating Disorders
Ketamine is becoming a promising treatment for various mental health conditions. Read to learn how individuals can use ketamine treatment for eating disorders.

Ketamine Resources, Studies, and Trusted Information
Curious to learn more about ketamine? This guide includes comprehensive ketamine resources containing books, studies and more.

Ketamine Guide: Effects, Common Uses, Safety
Our ultimate guide to ketamine has everything you need to know about this “dissociative anesthetic” and how it is being studied for depression treatment.

Ketamine for Depression: A Mental Health Breakthrough
While antidepressants work for some, many others find no relief. Read to learn about the therapeutic uses of ketamine for depression.

Ketamine for Addiction: Treatments Offering Hope
New treatments are offering hope to individuals suffering from addiction diseases. Read to learn how ketamine for addiction is providing breakthrough results.

Microdosing Ketamine & Common Dosages Explained
Microdosing, though imperceivable, is showing to have many health benefits–here is everything you want to know about microdosing ketamine.

How to Ease a Ketamine Comedown
Knowing what to expect when you come down from ketamine can help integrate the experience to gain as much value as possible.

How to Store Ketamine: Best Practices
Learn the best ways how to store ketamine, including the proper temperature and conditions to maximize how long ketamine lasts when stored.

How To Buy Ketamine: Is There Legal Ketamine Online?
Learn exactly where it’s legal to buy ketamine, and if it’s possible to purchase legal ketamine on the internet.

How Long Does Ketamine Stay in Your System?
How long does ketamine stay in your system? Are there lasting effects on your body? Read to discover the answers!

How Ketamine is Made: Everything You Need to Know
Ever wonder how to make Ketamine? Read our guide to learn everything you need to know about the procedures of how Ketamine is made.

Colorado on Ketamine: First Responders Waiver Programs
Fallout continues after Elijah McClain. Despite opposing recommendations from some city council, Colorado State Health panel recommends the continued use of ketamine by medics for those demonstrating “excited delirium” or “extreme agitation”.

Types of Ketamine: Learn the Differences & Uses for Each
Learn about the different types of ketamine and what they are used for—and what type might be right for you. Read now to find out!

Kitty Flipping: When Ketamine and Molly Meet
What is it, what does it feel like, and how long does it last? Read to explore the mechanics of kitty flipping.

MDMA & Ecstasy Guide: Effects, Common Uses, Safety
Our ultimate guide to MDMA has everything you want to know about Ecstasy from how it was developed in 1912 to why it’s being studied today.

How To Get the Most out of Taking MDMA as a Couple
Taking MDMA as a couple can lead to exciting experiences. Read here to learn how to get the most of of this love drug in your relationship.

Common MDMA Dosage & Microdosing Explained
Microdosing, though imperceivable, is showing to have many health benefits–here is everything you want to know about microdosing MDMA.

Having Sex on MDMA: What You Need to Know
MDMA is known as the love drug… Read our guide to learn all about sex on MDMA and why it is beginning to makes its way into couple’s therapy.

How MDMA is Made: Common Procedures Explained
Ever wonder how to make MDMA? Read our guide to learn everything you need to know about the procedures of how MDMA is made.

Hippie Flipping: When Shrooms and Molly Meet
What is it, what does it feel like, and how long does it last? Explore the mechanics of hippie flipping and how to safely experiment.

How Cocaine is Made: Common Procedures Explained
Ever wonder how to make cocaine? Read our guide to learn everything you need to know about the procedures of how cocaine is made.

A Christmas Sweater with Santa and Cocaine
This week, Walmart came under fire for a “Let it Snow” Christmas sweater depicting Santa with lines of cocaine. Columbia is not merry about it.

Ultimate Cocaine Guide: Effects, Common Uses, Safety
This guide covers what you need to know about Cocaine, including common effects and uses, legality, safety precautions and top trends today.

NEWS: An FDA-Approved Cocaine Nasal Spray
The FDA approved a cocaine nasal spray called Numbrino, which has raised suspicions that the pharmaceutical company, Lannett Company Inc., paid off the FDA..

The Ultimate Guide to Cannabis Bioavailability
What is bioavailability and how can it affect the overall efficacy of a psychedelic substance? Read to learn more.

Cannabis Research Explains Sociability Behaviors
New research by Dr. Giovanni Marsicano shows social behavioral changes occur as a result of less energy available to the neurons. Read here to learn more.

The Cannabis Shaman
If recreational and medical use of marijuana is becoming accepted, can the spiritual use as well? Experiential journalist Rak Razam interviews Hamilton Souther, founder of the 420 Cannabis Shamanism movement…

Cannabis Guide: Effects, Common Uses, Safety
Our ultimate guide to Cannabis has everything you want to know about this popular substances that has psychedelic properties.

Cannabis and Ayahuasca: Mixing Entheogenic Plants
Cannabis and Ayahuasca: most people believe they shouldn’t be mixed. Read this personal experience peppered with thoughts from a procannabis Peruvian Shaman.

CBD-Rich Cannabis Versus Single-Molecule CBD
A ground-breaking study has documented the superior therapeutic properties of whole plant Cannabis extract as compared to synthetic cannabidiol (CBD), challenging the medical-industrial complex’s notion that “crude” botanical preparations are less effective than single-molecule compounds.

Cannabis Has Always Been a Medicine
Modern science has already confirmed the efficacy of cannabis for most uses described in the ancient medical texts, but prohibitionists still claim that medical cannabis is “just a ruse.”

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